There may be painful sensations in the finger joints for a variety of reasons. Any pathological condition requires competent treatment.
Joint diseases require an integrated approach. It includes the use of medication, diet, physiotherapy, special gymnastics, and alternative medicine.
Possible causes of pain in the finger joints
Joint pain can occur at any age. There are several reasons for this phenomenon.
Finger joint pain is caused by this in 40% of cases. This pathology is also often referred to as polyarthrosis or nodular fingers. It is one of the dystrophic diseases and is characterized by slow progression, so patients often ignore the first stage of the disease.
The disease most commonly affects people over the age of 50 and is rare in people under the age of 40.
The causes of polyosteoarthritis are often referred to as heredity, but are also provoked by other factors:
- metabolic violation;
- pathology of the thyroid gland and other endocrine glands;
Joints contain cartilage that begins to break down. This means that natural lubrication is compromised, causing dryness and cracking.
Lack of lubrication and drying causes the articular cartilage to rub against each other, triggering an inflammatory process. This is caused by abnormal inflammatory joint fluid that expands the joints from the inside. As a result, they become deformed, accompanied by painful feelings.
Polyosteoarthritis is accompanied by other symptoms. They are mainly represented by Bouchard and Heberden knots:
- Bouchard knotsare characterized by slow development without complications. They are usually formed on the side surfaces of the joints, giving them a fusiform shape.
- Heberden nodulesaffect the distal interphalangeal joints of their posterior and lateral parts. They are characterized by the symmetrical development of both hands. The formation of lumps is often accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin around the joints. Painful and burning sensations appear, although in 30% of cases the pathology is asymptomatic.
As polyosteoarthritis progresses, joint stiffness increases. The consequence of the pathology is the curvature of the fingers.
Rheumatoid Arthritis and Still Disease
This disease belongs to the systemic pathologies of connective tissue and has complex autoimmune pathogenesis. Pathology rarely occurs in patients under 30 years of age. It is five times less common in men.
Signs of rheumatoid arthritis depend on its stage:
- The initial stage of the disease is characterized by periarticular edema of the bursae. This leads to pain, swelling of the periarticular region and a local rise in temperature.
- In the second stage, the cells begin to divide rapidly, causing the synovium to become denser.
- In the third stage, the inflamed cells produce an enzyme that acts on both the cartilage and the bone, so the affected joints tend to deform. This stage is associated with an increase in pain and loss of motor function.
There are three groups of possible causes of rheumatoid arthritis:
- Infections. Pathological changes can be caused by some paramyxoviruses, herpesviruses, hepatoviruses, retroviruses.
- Triggers. Pathological changes can be caused by hypothermia, poisoning, stress, taking certain medications, hyperisolation, endocrinopathy.
Still's disease is a form of rheumatoid arthritis. It is usually accompanied by fever, rash and itching. This disease is more often diagnosed in children. In addition to the joints, Still's disease can affect the lymph nodes, trigger pleurisy, pericarditis.
This pathology is a form of arthritis and can occur after 20 years. It develops in the background of psoriasis, but in some cases it prevents it.
In addition to painful feelings, pathology is accompanied by the following signs:
- swelling of the joints;
- Acquisition by blue-purple skin in the periarticular area;
- appearance of bumps and depressions on the nails;
- slight stiffness.
There is a destructive form of pathology characterized by rapid erosion of bones. It is full of loss of joint mobility.
The inflammatory process can affect not only the joints but also some organs. Skin plaques characteristic of psoriasis are often associated with the appearance of acne in this arthritis.
Possible causes of psoriasis arthritis include:
- alcohol consumption;
- skin damage;
- side effects of some medications;
- changes in hormonal levels;
- is an excess of ultraviolet radiation.
This arthritis is also called septic and is characterized by an inflammatory process caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.
Pathology has many possible symptoms - the clinical picture depends on the pathogen of the infection.
The main signs of the disease are:
- restricting mobility;
- affected area hyperemia;
As the cause of the pathology can be accompanied by infection, fever, chills and poisoning syndrome.
Infectious arthritis can be caused by another disease - rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, obesity. This can be caused by alcohol and drug addiction, a sexually transmitted infection.
This pathology is also called gouty arthritis. It is a metabolic disease. In this case, uric acid or sodium monourate is deposited in the tissues of the body. Gout is much less common among women.
Pathology is characterized by a paroxysmal nature. Exacerbation episodes can last from 3 days to a week and a half. The attacks are characterized by a sharp appearance and an equally rapid cessation. The presence of seizures is an inflammatory process.
Exacerbation of the disease often begins at night and may include the following symptoms:
- pain is worse when moving;
- over the inflamed joint, the skin turns red;
- body temperature rises;
- tophuses are formed around inflamed joints - whitish growth under the skin;
- lesions are usually unilateral.
In addition to the acute period, there are latent and chronic stages of the pathology. In the first case, the course of the disease is asymptomatic, the only sign being hyperuricemia (blood test indicator). The chronic stage is characterized by a long period of remission.
This pathology is a form of arthrosis where only the thumb is affected. In most cases, rhizarthrosis is a manifestation of polyosteoarthritis, but it is an independent disease in every 4-5 patients.
Trauma is the cause of this pathology in about every second person. It can be household or sports.
There are other causes of the pathology:
- incomplete rehabilitation in case of wrist fracture;
- permanent minor damage to the joint capsule;
- joint dysplasia;
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- metabolic disorder;
- Effects of certain drugs that cause changes in cartilage tissue.
Pathology has 3 stages:
- At first, a person only experiences discomfort.
- Bone growths then appear and painful sensations are exacerbated by exposure to nerve endings.
- In the last stage, the thumb is severely deformed, its mobility may be completely lost.
Pain is the main symptom of the disease. It increases with movement, atmospheric pressure drop, under cold or hot water. At first, the pain hurts and in the last stage of the pathology it simply becomes unbearable.
De Quervain's disease (tenosynovitis)
In this case, only the ribbons of the thumb light up. This pathology is provoked by the constant and monotonous movement of the hands, which causes minor injuries to the tendon running at the back of the wrist. Trauma can be another cause of the disease.
The disease is often associated with certain occupations:
- athletes (tennis players, skiers);
This pathology can develop at any age. Painful feelings can occur spontaneously, but are more often provoked by the load on the thumb - by pressing, stretching, or holding an object.
This condition is also known as Knott or Acne. The cause is tendonitis and the formation of nodules on it.
In this case, the affected finger bends and problematically returns to its original position.
Painful feelings occur when the finger is bent and stretched. In addition to pain, the disease is characterized by other symptoms:
- joint swelling;
- node (node) formation.
Narrowing ligamentitis can be triggered by rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, high stress on the joints.
There can be many causes for all pathologies. There are several risk factors that make finger joints more likely to develop:
- hereditary predisposition;
- chronic infection; diseases of the immune system
- metabolic pathology;
- altered hormonal background;
- trauma and microtrauma;
- long term negative effect.
When painful sensations first occur in the finger joints, they usually turn to a therapist who prescribes first examinations and refers them to a narrower specialist - surgeon, neurologist, traumatologist, arthrologist, rheumatologist, orthopedist, reflexologist, osteopath, endocrinologist, nutritionist.
In any case, the diagnosis begins with visual inspection. The specialist will then prescribe a standard laboratory blood and urine test. They allow the identification of the inflammatory process in the body and the evaluation of some important indicators (albumin, globulin fractions, amount of iron).
Joint puncture is one of the laboratory methods. A needle is placed in its cavity to collect synovial fluid. This test is also called arthrocentesis.
Among the instrumental diagnostic methods, the following tests may be performed according to the circumstances:
- X-ray.This method makes it possible to identify trauma, fracture, tumor, and other damage to bone tissue.
- Ultrasound scanning.This technique is used to examine soft tissues. You can also check the condition of your blood vessels with an ultrasound scan.
- Tomography- computer magnetic resonance imaging. CT is preferably used to examine bone structures - the examination is similar to X-rays but much more informative. MRI scans soft tissues more effectively
- Scintigraphy.This research is done using a radio indicator.
- Electrocardiogram.Such a diagnosis makes it possible to check whether the pathology has affected the heart.
Treatment of pain in the fingers of the joints of the hand
Any disease requires certain measures. The basis of treatment in most cases is drug therapy combined with physiotherapy and special exercises. Some diseases require a special diet. Folk recipes can also be effective in treating joint pathologies.
Various drugs are the cornerstones of most disease treatments.
The following medications should be used for joint changes:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Such funds are used for various inflammatory processes. Not only do they relieve inflammation, but they also reduce pain and fever. Such drugs are prepared in various dosage forms - for topical application, oral administration, injection.
- Antibiotics.Such drugs are used in the inflammatory process as well as the infectious origin of the pathology. To prescribe antibiotic therapy, the pathogen of the disease is first identified to determine its susceptibility to the drug.
- Glucocorticosteroids.These drugs are steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs. Their operation speeds up the recovery process. They are also available in various dosage forms.
- Chondroprotectors.These medications are used as part of a comprehensive treatment. They speed up the recovery process and prevent the pathology from recurring.
- painkillerscan be used for severe pain that cannot be tolerated. These can be either topical treatments in the form of a cream or gel, or oral or injectable drugs.
- Immunosuppressants.Such drugs are used when the pathology is autoimmune in nature.
Medication should only be prescribed by a doctor. Each patient needs a unique approach, so even for different people with the same conditions, the set of medications needed can vary radically.
Alternative medicine is used to treat a variety of ailments, including diseases of the joints.
The following folk recipes may be effective:
- Melt the propolis and mix with vegetable oil - sunflower or corn oil is more appropriate. The resulting preparation should be used as an ointment, rubbed on the affected areas.
- Rubbing with honey and horseradish. The products must be mixed in equal proportions.
- Dissolve a spoonful of mustard powder in half a glass of vodka and massage the affected areas with this composition.
- Cook unpeeled potatoes, knead together and apply a warm compress to the inflamed areas.
- Grind the onion into a paste and apply a compress to the affected areas. It should last for half an hour, repeating the procedure up to three times a day.
- Organ tincture helps a lot. You need to fill 3 tablespoons. l. raw with a glass of vodka and leave for a week in the dark. Rub the affected areas daily with a stretched mixture for at least half a month.
- Boil the rolled oats to give them the consistency of the jelly, cool slightly, soak the bandage in it and apply to the affected areas, fixed with polyethylene. Remove the compression after an hour.
- In case of inflammation, dissolve 1 tsp. baking soda in milk and drink.
- If the inflammatory process worsens, you can apply fresh cabbage leaves smeared with honey to the affected area.
- The affected joints can be kept in the bath by adding birch soup.
- Heat salt or buckwheat in a pan, place in a tissue bag and apply to the affected area, leaving for several hours.
- It is useful to use a bay leaf infusion. To do this, pour a glass of boiling water on a few leaves and stick to it.
- Useful for black radish with honey. Three times a day you should take a spoonful of this cure.
- juice is useful in joint pathologies. A glass of cranberry or cranberry juice, birch juice is enough every day.
Traditional medicine alone is appropriate in the early stages of pathology development. In other cases, it should be used in conjunction with traditional methods. Self-healing cannot produce results, and the pathology will only get worse at this time.
Physiotherapy is an element of a comprehensive approach to joint pathology. Perform only as directed by a physician. There are many physiotherapy methods, so the right option is chosen individually.
For various diseases of the finger joints, the following procedures are appropriate:
- magnetotherapy - constant, pulse;
- laser therapy;
- ozokerite therapy;
- diadynamic therapy; oxygen therapy;
- shock wave therapy;
- ozone therapy.
Various therapeutic methods are being designed to restore joint mobility, restore blood circulation, muscle tone, enhance metabolic processes, and accelerate healing.
Any method of physiotherapy has certain contraindications, so you should only see a doctor for these.
Special finger exercises are part of a comprehensive treatment approach. Such exercise makes it possible to restore blood circulation and mobility, reduce pain, and has an overall strengthening effect.
You can warm your hands before the tournament if there is no contraindication. It is enough to dip your hands in warm water for 5 minutes or use a warming pad.
The following exercises are effective for various joint pathologies:
- Fist clenched into a fist. You should gently clench your fists so that your thumb is on top of the others. In this situation, you need to linger for 0, 5-1 minutes and then pull out your fist as much as possible, spreading your fingers apart. You must perform at least 4 reps for each hand.
- Finger warm up. Place your palm on a hard surface and press firmly. Take turns lifting each finger, making 10 reps for each hand.
- Contact. You should turn your hand with your palm toward you and alternately connect the tip of each finger with the tip of your thumb to form a circle. All contacts should be kept for 0, 5-1 minutes. Perform 4 or more reps on each hand.
- Thumb exercise. The palm should be on a solid surface. You need to move your thumb along, keeping it maximally removed from the rest. At the outermost point, you should linger for 0, 5-1 minutes and then return to the starting position. Perform 10-15 reps with both hands. Do the exercise every 2-3 days.
- There's another thumb exercise. You should turn your hand with your palm toward you, move your thumb to the side as much as possible, and then bend it so that the tip touches the base of your little finger. At this point should be delayed for 0, 5-1 minutes. Perform 4 or more reps per hand.
- Stretching the brush. You should place your palm on the table and adjust the brush to make it as smooth as possible. In this situation you need to stay for 0, 5-1 minutes. Perform 4 reps for each hand.
- Finger stretching. With your palms, you need to turn your hands toward you and bend your fingers so that they touch the skin on their base. In this situation, you need to linger for 0, 5-1 minutes, and then align your fingers smoothly. Perform 4 or more reps per hand.
- Stretching your thumb. You need to turn your hand with your palm toward you and bend your thumb so that the tip touches the base of your index finger. In this situation, you need to linger for 0, 5-1 minutes, performing 4 repetitions.
- There is another option to extend the thumb. The starting position is the same. The thumb should be pulled to the base of the little finger, moving only the lower joint. Stay at the outermost point for 0, 5-1 minutes and perform 4 reps with both hands.
- Strengthening exercise. It is necessary to take a soft sphere and squeeze it as much as possible, lingering for a few seconds at the extreme point. Perform 10-15 reps at each hand. The exercise itself should not be done every day, but every 2-3 days, resting your hands.
- Tweak. A soft ball is also required for this exercise. It should be pinched so that there is a thumb on one side and all the others on the other. In this situation, you need to linger for 0, 5-1 minutes. You need to do 10-15 reps for each hand. Exercise every 2-3 days.
In addition to such exercises, it is also useful to work with clay or plasticine. The material can be easily rolled and kneaded or made from various crafts.
Finger exercise should not be performed if the pain is too severe. In this case, exercise can only cause harm.
One of the principles of treating various joint pathologies is proper nutrition.
The diet should be organized according to the following principles:
- Weight normalization. This is necessary for deviation in any direction. In the case of fat metabolism disorders, lipids are deposited on the joints.
- Salt restriction. If there is too much of it in the body, the joints lose their elasticity.
- Avoid drinking alcohol.
- In the case of gout, the emphasis should be on plant foods to alkalize the body.
- Reduce your animal protein intake. The amino acids in it penetrate the synovium, causing inflammation and pain.
- It is better to refuse broths or use secondary broths.
- It is better not to use the meat in pure form, but as slices, meatballs, meatballs.
- In case of gout, you need to give up oily fish, caviar, cap liver, offal, eggs, butter with cream, fatty sour cream, nuts.
- You must reject sweets, pastries, cereals after pre-treatment, instant products.
- The diet should be saturated with vitamin C. This requires citrus, blueberries, apples, peppers, black currants, brussels sprouts, broccoli.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The following measures are appropriate to prevent various joint changes in the fingers:
- Proper nutrition. The diet should be rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, complex carbohydrates, lean protein foods and unsaturated fatty acids.
- Adequate vitamin and mineral intake. If you have few of them in your diet, you should resort to pharmacy resources.
- Proper drinking system. Dehydration slows down metabolism, which impairs blood circulation and nutrition in the joints and reduces the amount of synovial fluid in them. The drinking system should be based on clean, gas-free water. On average, you need to drink 2 liters of fluid a day.
- There are no bad habits.
- Appropriate physical activity. It is important for the normal rate of metabolic processes in the body, good blood circulation, strengthening of the periarticular muscles and ligaments.
- Special exercise for the fingers. It is especially important if the fingers are under constant stress. This is common in some athletes and professions.
- Competent alternation of activity and rest. The night's sleep should be complete.
- Minimal stress.
- Regular medical check-ups. They can recognize the initial stage of the pathology or the prerequisites for its development, allowing the necessary measures to be taken in a timely manner.
Finger joint pain cannot be ignored. Even in the absence of concomitant symptoms, such a phenomenon may be the first sign of severe pathology. An integrated approach is used in the treatment of joint diseases. Therapeutic methods should be prescribed by a physician as each patient needs a unique approach.